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This study aims to establish whether web-panel surveys can provide a viable less resource intensive means of boosting sample sizes of two hard-to-reach groups (people of Black African ethnicity, and gay men) for a sexual health survey, and the extent of any bias.Methods: Results from a national probability sample survey (Natsal-3, administered using a computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI) and self-interview (CASI) with 15,162 participants), which included 211 black African participants and 83 gay men, were compared with results from a web-panel survey (using identical questions) of 529 black Africans and 592 gay men.This paper aims to establish whether WPSs could provide a viable means of boosting sample sizes of two particular “hard-to-reach” groups (people of Black African ethnicity and gay men) for a sexual health survey, and the extent of bias found in the WPS.We compare socio-demographic characteristics and estimates of the prevalence of key sexual behaviours and attitudes among these groups from a WPS to reference data including from a large, interviewer-administered, national probability sample survey (the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3)).There is considerable interest in developing more cost-effective methods of collecting data, and of increasing sample sizes for hard-to-reach groups.Web-panel surveys (WPSs) could provide a viable, cost-effective means of boosting sample sizes of these groups if the panel contains members of these “hard-to-reach” groups, and if they can provide unbiased estimates(2, 5).Previous research has shown that volunteer web-panel surveys tend to give biased results for key estimates at the population level, in comparison to well-designed probability sample surveys(14-19).

face-to-face, telephone, web) have distinct implications for data quality and cost(13).In contrast to these traditional methods, online surveys promise reduced costs and quicker turnaround.As such, there has been dramatic growth in the use of online surveys for market research and opinion polling(2).Discussion: Web-panel surveys may be able to sample hard-to-reach groups but may not be able to replace probability-sample surveys where accurate population-level estimates of sensitive sexual behaviours are required.Differences between web and CASI responses, where mode effects may be similar, suggest web-panel survey selection bias.

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