Laws predating the 10 commandments
Note that this uniquely gifted law maker is not necessarily God, since new ideas have been proposed by a number of gifted people throughout history, but it would be consistent with God as the source.
During the Mediæval period, not only Roman influence continued, but even Islamic concepts were borrowed.
4 You shall not make for yourself an idol, whether in the form of anything that is in heaven above, or that is on the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.
5 You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I the Lord your God am a jealous God, punishing children for the iniquity of parents, to the third and the fourth generation of those who reject me, 6 but showing steadfast love to the thousandth generation of those who love me and keep my commandments.
Case law, with which we are greatly familiar with in North America, evolved in England as part of Common Law.
There is very little evidence from legal history scholarship that the bible, let alone the Ten Commandments, had any influence on modern law worth mentioning.